WHAT IS HERNIA?
A hernia occurs when an internal organ or other body component protrudes through the muscle or tissue wall that normally surrounds it. The majority of hernias occur in the abdominal cavity, between the chest and the hips.
Most common types of hernia include:
In this type of hernia, the intestine or the bladder protrudes through the abdominal wall or into the inguinal canal in the groin. Inguinal hernias account for over 90 percent of all groin hernias, and the majority of them arise in men due to an inherent weakness in this area.
At the upper part of the inner thigh, fatty tissue or a section of the intestine protrudes into the groin. Femoral hernias are far less common than inguinal hernias, and they mostly affect elderly, obese or pregnant women.
Near the navel, fatty tissue or a section of the intestine pushes through the abdomen (belly button). It is common in newborns, overweight women or those who have had many kids.
It occurs when the upper part of the stomach squeezes through the hiatus, an opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes.
CAUSES OF HERNIA
All hernias are triggered by a combination of pressure and an opening or weakness of muscle; the pressure forces an organ or tissue through the weak spot or opening. At times the muscle weakness is present at the time of birth. It is also associated with aging as well.
Anything that causes repeated strain on abdomen can result in hernia, such factors include:
- Lifting heavy objects
- frequent coughing
- diarrhea or constipation
- frequent coughing or sneezing
How is a hernia treated?
Hernias normally do not recover on their own, so surgery might be the only option to repair them. There are 3 types of hernia surgeries:
An open surgery is one in which an incision is made into the body at the point where hernia is situated. The projecting tissue is sewn back together, and the weakening muscular wall is reattached. Sometimes a sort of mesh is implanted in the area for added support. Most of the patients will be able to go home within a few hours of surgery and will feel entirely normal within a few days. For the first few weeks after surgery, strenuous activities and exercise are prohibited.
Laparoscopic (minimally invasive) hernia repair requires a laparoscope, a thin, telescope-like instrument that is inserted through a small incision at the belly button. This procedure is normally executed under general anesthesia.
A minute video camera is attached to the laparoscope. The surgeon repairs the hernia using images from the laparoscope as a guide. The abdomen is inflated with a safe gas (carbon dioxide) to make room for the surgeon to examine your interior organs. To disclose the weakness in the abdominal wall, the peritoneum (the inner lining of the abdomen) is sliced. The mesh is inserted on the inside of the abdominal wall to cover the flaws and strengthen the tissue.
The incisions are closed with a stitch or surgical tape after the procedure is completed. They are barely noticeable after a few months.
Three small scars instead of one larger incision, less pain after surgery and speedy recovery are some advantages of laparoscopic hernia surgery.
Robotic hernia repair
It is also like laparoscopic surgery. It is done through small incisions and requires a laparoscope. The surgeon performs robotic surgery while seated at a console in the operating room, where he controls the surgical instruments. In addition to treating minor hernias or weak sections, Robotic surgery can also be utilized to repair abdominal walls.
Advantage of this procedure is that it provides three-dimensional images of the inside of the abdomen in comparison to the two-dimensional images of laparoscopic surgery. Robotic surgery also permits the surgeon to easily use stitches to sew tissue and meshes inside the abdomen.
The nature, size, and location of your hernia are the factors that will influence the type of surgery you’ll need. Your doctor will also take into account your age, health, and lifestyle.